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Pada tahun ini, hari raya Iedul Adha  10 Dzulhijjah 1430 H bertepat dengan hari Jum’at atau tanggal 27 Nopember 2009. Sehari sebelumnya tanggal 9 Dzulhijjah disunnahkan untuk melaksanakan shaum yaitu shaum arofah, sebagaimana dalam hadits:

 

عَنْ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ فَقَالَ كَفَّارَةُ سَنَتَيْنِ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ فَقَالَ كَفَّارَةُ سَنَةٍ (رواه احمد)

Dari Abi Qotadah bahwasanya Rasululloh SAW ditanya tentang shaum arofah, beliau menjawab: ‘(Shaum arofah) menghapus (dosa) dua tahun yang telah lalu’ dan Beliau ditanya tentang shaum asyuro, Beliau menjawab: ‘(Shaum asyuro) menghapus (dosa) setahun yang lalu’. (HR Ahmad)

 

Adapaun hari raya iedul adha atau iedul fitri bertepatan dengan hari jum’at pernah terjadi di jaman Rasululloh sebagaimana hadits-hadits berikut ini:

 

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ قَدْ اجْتَمَعَ فِي يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا عِيدَانِ فَمَنْ شَاءَ أَجْزَأَهُ مِنْ الْجُمُعَةِ وَإِنَّا مُجَمِّعُونَ

(رواه ابو داود)

Dari Abu Hurairoh RA dari Rasululloh SAW, bahwa beliau bersabda, “Sungguh telah berkumpul pada harimu ini dua Ied, siapa yang menghendaki shalat ied, maka shalat ied mencukupkannya dari shalat Jum’at. Sesungguhnya kami akan melaksanakan Jum’ah. (HR Abu Dawud)

 

عَنْ إِيَاسِ بْنِ أَبِي رَمْلَةَ الشَّامِيِّ قَالَ شَهِدْتُ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنَ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ وَهُوَ يَسْأَلُ زَيْدَ بْنَ أَرْقَمَ قَالَ أَشَهِدْتَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عِيدَيْنِ اجْتَمَعَا فِي يَوْمٍ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَكَيْفَ صَنَعَ قَالَ صَلَّى الْعِيدَ ثُمَّ رَخَّصَ فِي الْجُمُعَةِ فَقَالَ مَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ فَلْيُصَلِّ (رواه ابو داود)

Dari Iyas bin Abi Ramlah as Syamiy, ia berkata: ‘Saya melihat Abu Sufyan bertanya kepada Zaid bin Arqam, katanya, “apakah Engkau pernah mengalami bersama Rasul dua hari raya berkumpul dalam satu hari? Ia menjawab, “Ya pernah” Abu Sufyan bertanya lagi, “Bagaimana yang beliau lakukan?” Zaid menjawab, “Beliau shalat ied, kemudian member keringanan, dengan sabdanya, “Siapa yang hendak shalat, hendaklah ia shalat.” (HR Abu Dawud)

Dari dua hadits di atas dapat disimpulkan:

  1. Orang yang melaksanakan shalat ied pada hari Jum’at di beri kelonggaran atau rukhsoh karena sholat ie sudah mencukupkannya dari shalat jum’at. Adapun Rasul melaksanakan shalat Jum’at.
  2. Orang yang melaksanakan shalat ied pada hari jum’at, kemudian mengambil rukhsoh dengan tidak melaksanakan jum’at maka tidak usah shalat dzuhur, karena orang yang wajib jum’at pada hari jum’at tidak dibenarkan shalat dzuhur. (Wallohu a’lam)

 

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Hai orang-orang yang beriman, taatilah Allah dan taatilah Rasul (nya), dan ulil amri di antara kamu. Kemudian jika kamu berlainan pendapat tentang sesuatu, Maka kembalikanlah ia kepada Allah (Al Quran) dan Rasul (sunnahnya), jika kamu benar-benar beriman kepada Allah dan hari kemudian. yang demikian itu lebih utama (bagimu) dan lebih baik akibatnya. )An Nisa:59)

وقال علي بن أبي طلحة، عن ابن عباس: { وَأُولِي الأمْرِ مِنْكُمْ } يعني: أهل الفقه والدين. وكذا قال مجاهد، وعطاء، والحسن البصري، وأبو العالية: { وَأُولِي الأمْرِ مِنْكُمْ } يعني: العلماء. والظاهر -والله أعلم-أن الآية في جميع أولي الأمر من الأمراء والعلماء، كما تقدم. (تفسير ابن كثير:(469

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ أَطَاعَنِي فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَمَ نْ يُطِعْ الْأَمِيرَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَنِي وَمَنْ يَعْصِ الْأَمِيرَ فَقَدْ عَصَانِي وَإِنَّمَا الْإِمَامُ جُنَّةٌ يُقَاتَلُ مِنْ وَرَائِهِ وَيُتَّقَى بِهِ فَإِنْ أَمَرَ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَعَدَلَ فَإِنَّ لَهُ بِذَلِكَ أَجْرًا وَإِنْ قَالَ بِغَيْرِهِ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ مِنْهُ (رواه البخارى:2957)
Dari Abu Hurairah, dari Nabi SAW beliau bersabda:’Barangsiapa yang taat kepadaku maka ia telah taat kepada Alloh dan barangsiapa yang ma’shiat kepadaku maka ia telah ma’shiat kepada Alloh dan barangsiapa yang taat kepada Pemimpin maka ia telah taat kepadaku dan barangsiapa yang ma’shiat kepada Pemimpin maka ia telah ma’shiat kepadaku. Sesungguhnya Imam itu adalah benteng (orang-orang muslim) berperang di belakangnya dan dijadikan tempat perlindungan, maka apabila dia memerintah atas dasar taqwa kepada Alloh dan berlaku adil maka baginya pahala dan apabila sebaliknya maka tanggungjawabnya kepadanya. (HR Bukhori)
عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَمُرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ لِي النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَا عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ سَمُرَةَ لَا تَسْأَلْ الْإِمَارَةَ فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ أُعْطِيتَهَا عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ وُكِلْتَ إِلَيْهَا وَإِنْ أُعْطِيتَهَا عَنْ غَيْرِ مَسْأَلَةٍ أُعِنْتَ عَلَيْهَا وَإِذَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَرَأَيْتَ غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَكَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِكَ وَأْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ (رواه البخارى : 7146 كتاب الاحكام باب مَنْ سَأَلَ الْإِمَارَةَ وُكِلَ إِلَيْهَا)
Dari Abdurrahman bin Samurah ia berkata:’Nabi SAW berkata kepadaku, Wahai Abdurrahman bin Samurah engkau jangan meminta kepemimpinan maka sesunguhnya jika engkau diberi kepemimpinan dengan cara meminta, maka engkau akan diberi beban dengan kepemimpinan itu (tidak akan diberi pertolongan) dan apabila engkau diberi kepemimpinan dengan tanpa meminta maka engkau akan diberi pertolongan dalam kepemimpinan itu dan apabila engkau bersumpah kemudian engkau melihat yang lebih baik daripada itu maka lakukanlah kifarat terhadap sumpahmu dan lakukanlah yang lebih baik. (HR Bukhari)
وَيُعَارِضهُ فِي الظَّاهِر مَا أَخْرَجَهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَة رَفَعَهُ ” مَنْ طَلَبَ قَضَاء الْمُسْلِمِينَ حَتَّى يَنَالهُ ثُمَّ غَلَبَ عَدْله جَوْره فَلَهُ الْجَنَّة ، وَمَنْ غَلَبَ جَوْره عَدْله فَلَهُ النَّار ” وَالْجَمْع بَيْنَهُمَا أَنَّهُ لَا يَلْزَم مِنْ كَوْنه لَا يُعَان بِسَبَبِ طَلَبه أَنْ لَا يَحْصُلَ مِنْهُ الْعَدْل إِذَا وَلِيَ (فتح البارى 15:19)
Hadits ini secara dlohir berbeda dengan hadits yang keluarkan oleh Abu Dawud yang Ia marfukan dari Abu Hurairah” Barangsiapa yang meminta untuk mengatur urusan kaum muslimin (jabatan) sampai dia memperolehnya kemudian dia berlaku adil, tidak berbuat dzalim maka baginya surga dan barangsiapa yang berbuat dzalim, tidak berlaku adil maka baginya neraka”. Thariqoh jam’i diantara dua hadits tersebut bahwa dia tidak akan diberi pertolongan dengan sebab meminta jabatan itu karena tidak berbuat adil dalam memangku jabatan itu. (Fathul Bari Jilid 15 hal 19)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ سَتَحْرِصُونَ عَلَى الْإِمَارَةِ وَسَتَكُونُ نَدَامَةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَنِعْمَ الْمُرْضِعَةُ وَبِئْسَتْ الْفَاطِمَةُ (رواه البخارى:7148)
Dari Abu Hurairah, dari Nabi SAW beliau bersabda: ‘Sesungguhnya kalian akan rakus terhadap jabatan dan akan menjadi penyesalan pada hari kiamat, maka di dunia mendapat kebahagiaan dan di akhirat mendapatkan penderitaan (HR Bukhari)
قَوْله ( وَسَتَكُونُ نَدَامَة . يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة )
أَيْ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَعْمَل فِيهَا بِمَا يَنْبَغِي ، وَزَادَ رِوَايَة شَبَابَةَ ” وَحَسْرَة ” وَيُوَضِّح ذَلِكَ مَا أَخْرَجَهُ الْبَزَّار وَالطَّبَرَانِيُّ بِسَنَدٍ صَحِيح عَنْ عَوْف بْن مَالِك بِلَفْظِ ” أَوَّلهَا مَلَامَة ؛ وَثَانِيهَا نَدَامَة ، وَثَالِثهَا عَذَاب يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة ، إِلَّا مَنْ عَدَلَ ” (فتح البارى 15:21)
Kalimat “wa satakuunu nadaamatan yaumal qiyaamah” yaitu bagi orang yang tidak menjalankan apa yang semestinya dijalankan dan di dalam riwayat Syabaabah ditambah dengan kata “wa hasrotan” (kesedihan). Dijelaskan pula hal itu oleh hadits riwayat Al Bazzaar dan At Thabrany dengan sanad yang shahih dari Auf bin Malik dengan lafad “(jabatan itu akan menjadi) pertama celaan, yang kedua penyesalan dan yang ketiga adzab pada hari qiyamat kecuali orang yang berlaku adil” (Fathul Bari Jilid:15 hal 21)
وَيُقَيِّدهُ أَيْضًا مَا أَخْرَجَ مُسْلِم عَنْ أَبِي ذَرّ قَالَ ” قُلْت يَا رَسُول اللَّه أَلَا تَسْتَعْمِلُنِي ؟ قَالَ : إِنَّك ضَعِيف ، وَإِنَّهَا أَمَانَة ، وَإِنَّهَا يَوْم الْقِيَامَة خِزْي وَنَدَامَة إِلَّا مَنْ أَخَذَهَا بِحَقِّهَا وَأَدَّى الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا ”
Dan dibatasi pula hadits itu oleh hadits riwayat Muslim dari Abu Dzar ia berkata: Saya berkata ‘Wahai Rasululloh kenapa tidak memberi jabatan kepada saya? Rasul menjawab: Sesungguhnya engkau lemah (tidak memiliki kapabilitas) dan sesungguhnya jabatan itu amanah, dan sesungguhnya akan menjadi kehinaan dan penyesalan pada hari kiamat kecuali orang yang menjalankannya dengan hak dan melaksanakan tanggungjawabnya di dalam jabatan itu’ (Ibid)
Abu Dzar adalah seorang sahabat yang sudah diakui ketaqwaan dan kualitas ibadahnya tapi Rasul tidak memberi jabatan kepadanya. Maka itulah fungsi Imam akan menempatkan orang sesuai dengan kapabilitasnya dan jika Imam sudah memutuskan bahwa orang itu memiliki kapabilitas untuk memegang jabatan itu, maka kewajiban kita untuk as sam’u wa tha’at.

dsc_7407Abstract: This paper is aimed to study about connotation and its implication in language use. In line with this paper it is discussed the connotative utterance found in the translation of the Holy Quran, Surah Al Anfal verse 60. The connotative utterance is regarded having negative emotional response to the readers, therefore it is suggested to replace such utterance with the utterance which contains positive emotional response to the readers without changing the meaning of the surah.

Keywords: connotation, denotation, connotative meaning.

INTRODUCTION

A connotation is not the exact meaning (= denotation) but a vague implication, semantic associations of a word or phrase. For example, the denotation of caviar is simply “sturgeon eggs” but it connotes wealth and indulgence. This word is the noun from the verb to connote; the adjective is connotative, as the connotative significance of a remark. An implication of a statement is a meaning directly and inevitably bound to it, as smoke implies fire. A connotation is a vaguer association, as wearing furs connotes wealth, even though the furs may have come from hard work and saving or working on a mink farm. The Word derives from Medieval Latin connotare “to mark with” from con “with” + notare “to mark” (from nota “mark”). The root of notare started out its life as Proto-Indo-European *gno- “know”, which came down to English as know. In some of its variants a vowel was inserted between the two consonants at the beginning of this root. One of these variants became English cunning from Old English cunnan “to know how to”. (Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia). Within contemporary society, connotation branches into a culmination of different meanings. These could include the contrast of a word or phrase with its primary, literal meaning (known as a denotation), with what that word or phrase specifically denotes. The connotation essentially relates to how anything may be associated with a word or phrase, for example, an implied value judgment or feelings. In logic and in some branches of semantics, connotation is more or less synonymous with intension. Connotation is often contrasted with denotation, which is more or less synonymous with extension. A word’s denotation is the collection of things it refers to; its connotation is what it implied about the things it is used to refer to. So, the denotation of dog is just the collection of all the dogs that exist. The connotation of dog is (something like) four-legged canine carnivore. Alternatively, the connotation of the word may be thought of as the set of all its possible referents (as opposed to merely the actual ones). So saying “You are a dog” would imply that you were ugly or aggressive rather than stating that you were canine. The relationship between words and meanings is extremely complicated, and belongs to the field of semantics. So, the words do not have single, simple meanings. Traditionally, grammarians have referred to the meanings of words in two parts:

denotation: a literal meaning of the word

connotation: an association (emotional or otherwise) which the word evokes

It is useful to make a distinction between this kind of “naming” meaning, which is called denotation, and another kind of meaning, which is called connotation. Connotation refers to the associations that words can have in our minds.

EXPERTS’ OPINION

According to Barwell (1983: 60), Connotation includes the emotional response which the word arouses in a person because of his attitude to the object referred to. This response may be positive, negative or neutral in varying degrees. For example the word ‘mother’ arouses positive emotional response in most people compared with ‘woman’ which is rather neutral. Furthermore, He said that connotative meaning is often culturally conditioned in English. The word ‘fox’ carries negative overtones being associated with qualities of cunning and deceitfulness. In another language, the equivalent word may have no negative emotional content. But there may be other words which would be neutral in English and have strong emotional content in the other language. Emotional reaction is largely determined by differences in culture and to some to some extent by differences in personal background. Connotation relates to the association that a word has over and above its denotation. Linguistically significant are the associations that a word carries for a whole language community or at least for a defined group within a language community. For example, the word caviar denotes ‘the salted roe of large fish (e.g. sturgeon)’, but it may said to connote luxury, high living and sumptuous food. For many people candle may have religious connotation or alternatively romantic associations as lighting for an intimate meal. Faraway, which is denotationally synonymous with distant, has romantic connotations absent from the latter. Milk for many people will connote health and strength, especially if you belong to the generation that consumed one-third of a pint every school-day; more recently perhaps the connotation has changed to the opposite, at least with the health and slimming conscious, especially in view of the association of dairy products with hearth disease. Pig no doubt connotes uncleanness and unpleasant smells for many. Tram on the other hand may have connotations of nostalgia or holidays.

Ahmadin (2002: 45) stated, connotation arises as words become related with certain characteristics of item they evoke which may or may not be indicated in a dictionary definition. The word dog, for instance, understood by mot British people has positive connotation of friendship and loyalty. Whereas the equivalent in Arabic as understood by most people in Arabic countries has negative association of dirt and inferiority. Within the English language, moist has favourable connotation, whereas dank has unfavourable. We could describe something as ‘pleasantly moist’, while ‘pleasantly dank’ would seem absurd. In addition, the burdening of women for many years with attributes such as weakness, inconstancy and irrationally has resulted in this becoming connotation of the word ‘woman’ for many people.

The connotation of a word is subdivided into two parts: the defining qualities of the category or class it names, and the emotive or affective responses it arouses in the minds of its users. In popular parlance “denotation” is often thought of as the real or proper meaning of a word, and “connotation” as the mere accretion of illogical, even capricious feelings that help or color this meaning-hence, something that well-organized linguistic society would probably legislate out of existence. Note that we are making no such individious distinction. All part of the meaning of a word are there only because the users of the word impute them; denotation and connotation (both kind of connotation) are equally respectable, equally important to our inquiry. They all require extensive examination.

It would seem, at first glance, that the function of proper names must be purely denotative, each one pointing to one single referent in the extensional world. We must remember, however, not only such names as God, Brahma, Zeus, and so forth, referring to “beings” whose existence cannot be extensionally verified, but also the complex of emotive connotation associated with these or with the names of specific persons and places by the great majority of partakers in a common cultural heritage: for example Lincoln, Gandhi, Caesar, Lenin, Marx, Athens, Mecca, Wall Street. The strength of the connotative element is shown by the fact that many of this names gradually come to function in the public vocabulary as common nouns, regardless of whether we continue to spell them with a capital initial letter or not. Thus when call a man a Shylock, a city of Athens, we communicate both a quality or set of qualities and a feeling-of favor, disfavor, terror, amusement, and so forth.(Salomon, 1966)

Two points need to be noted from our discussion of connotation so far. One is that connotations are far more indeterminate that denotations. On the one hand connotations may be subject to considerable variation from one generation to the next (e.g. milk, or consider what the word siren means to the generation that experienced the Second World War). On the other hand connotations may be rather subjective and not shared in the same way by all speakers of a language: our individual experience of language and its relation to the world is to some extent unique and idiosyncratic. The other point about connotation is the extent to which it relates to the lexeme itself rather than to the entity that the lexeme denotes, or whether it is not possible entirely to separate the two. The connotation of a word for us must reflect our experience of the entity to which the word refers and the place which this entity has in our belief systems and thought patterns; but we no doubt transfer the associations of the entity itself to the lexeme we use to denote it. Besides, connotation shared by a group of language users or whole language community are part of the cultural package that we inherit with the language itself.

Another term that is associated with connotation, though rather narrower in scope, is emotive meaning. In any culture at any time there are words which are used by sloganisers, political or otherwise, to stand, some for positive and some for negative values, judges as such by that culture. Sometimes these ‘emotive’ overtones have been more important in world’s use than the denotation of the word. We may cite as example such as: imperialism, revolution, freedom, democracy, republic, justice, equality, progress, rights, law, etc. And you can probably think of more to add to the list. After all, both communist and capitalist system call themselves ‘democratic’. Similarity, advertisers have a series of adjectives (and images) whose emotive meanings all but eclipse their denotations, such as: modern, delicious, special, fine, real, fresh, pure, genuine, healthy, etc. The referential meaning of a lexeme therefore, its denotation and connotation, depends on the context of its use, in two senses. First of all it depends on it linguistic context, the other words in the same sentence, paragraph or even text. The lexeme freedom has a different meaning in the context of prisoner, gaol, cell, sentence and warder that it has in the context of oppression, dictator, injustice, regime and junta. Secondly, the referential meaning of a lexeme depends on its situational context: who is using the word, who the audience is, what the occasion of use is. (Jackson, 1996: 60)

Clearly, the definitions of lexemes that we find in dictionaries do not, indeed cannot, take account of the kinds of variation in referential meaning that we have been discussing. The division into senses is an attempt to take account of context, but the description of connotation by and large finds no place in dictionary definition. The meaning of (the sense of) a lexeme that we find given in a dictionary entry must therefore be regarded as ‘potential’ a distillation of the essentials, awaiting actualisation in a particular linguistics and situational context. Because this is so, we cannot cite a dictionary definition as authoritative in the interpretation of a word in a particular context. We must allow for the possibility that a word will be used in new contexts with new ‘meanings’.

SOME CONNOTATIVE EXPRESSIONS

The followings are the examples of connotative words: Freedom for a dissident in the Soviet Union might mean the capacity to read, hear, say and write what he or she thinks; in South Africa, on the other hand, freedom for a black person might mean the lifting of apartheid restriction on movement and residence. In both context the ‘freedom from oppression’ sense is meant, but the situation determines the meaning more precisely. For some words it may be the connotation that is affected by context; in choosing clothes the word stylish may have a positive connotation for one person but a negative connotation for another. (Jackson, 1996: 60)

A stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. Although these have the same literal meaning (i.e. stubborn), strong-willed connotes admiration for someone’s convictions, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone. Likewise, used car and previously owned car have the same literal meaning, but many dealerships prefer the latter, since it is thought to have fewer negative connotations.(taken from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia)

For example, both “woman” and “chick” have the denotation “adult female” in North American society, but “chick” has somewhat negative connotations, while “woman” is neutral.

For another example of connotations, consider the following:

negative

There are over 2,000 vagrants in the city.

neutral

There are over 2,000 people with no fixed address in the city.

positive

There are over 2,000 homeless in the city.

All three of these expressions refer to exactly the same people, but they will invoke different associations in the reader’s mind: a “vagrant” is a public nuisance while a “homeless” person is a worthy object of pity and charity. Presumably, someone writing an editorial in support of a new shelter would use the positive form, while someone writing an editorial in support of anti-loitering laws would use the negative form.

The American linguist S. J. Hayakawa invented the terms purr words and snarl words to describe words with different associations in people’s minds.

thinking

day-dreaming

dancing

Jiggling about

smiling

smirking

weeping

snivelling

writing

scribbling

Some words bring very different connotations to mind among different groups of people.
feminist
rugby
socialist
casino

Those whose profession it is to persuade us, such as advertisers, politicians, preachers, and orators, need to be sensitive to the connotations of the words they use. One way of testing the connotative meaning of words is to ask speakers to rank them on a scale of different qualities.

good———-bad
sincere——–insincere
happy———unhappy
light———–dark
beautiful——-ugly
strong———weak
valuable——-worthless
smooth——–rough

It might seem a little strange, but people seem to be quite good at saying whether words like natural or fresh or smelly or fragrant are smooth or rough, light or dark, valuable or worthless.

The connotations of words are culturally determined. In English, the word “red” can have negative connotations of “blood” or “communism”. In Russian, krasnyj, the word for “red”, has very good connotations. The Russian word for “beautiful” is prekrasnyj, which contains within it the word for “red”. Many of the most obvious changes in the English language over the past few decades have had to do with the connotations of words which refer to groups of people. Since the 1950’s, words like “Negro” and “crippled” have acquired strong negative connotations, and have been replaced either by words with neutral connotations (ie “black,” “handicapped”) or by words with deliberately positive connotations (ie “African-Canadian,” “differently-abled”). A very simple approach to words is to see them as labelling things in the world. This works well for some words. Concrete nouns like cat, sheep, or frog are used to refer to certain animals that can readily be described or pointed to. The denotation of the noun pig is a non-ruminant omnivorous ungulate. For some people, the word pig might have connotations of dirty and smelly; others will think of inquisitive or cheeky.

Often we have a choice of words that can express our point of view. One person’s din might be another person’s music. Some might see terrorists where others see freedom fighters. One person’s stunning architectural statement might be another’s hideous blot on the landscape.

DISCUSSION

Let’s see the translation of the Qur’an taken from Qur’an Viewer 2.72 which was translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali in surah Al Anfal (The Spoils of War) verse 60:

(#r‘‰Ïãr&ur Nßgs9 $¨B OçF÷èsÜtGó™$# `ÏiB ;o§qè% ÆÏBur ÅÞ$t/Íh‘ È@ø‹yÜø9$# šcqç7Ïdöè? ¾ÏmÎ/ ¨r߉tã «!$# öNà2¨r߉tãur tûï̍yz#uäur `ÏB óOÎgÏRrߊ Ÿw ãNßgtRqßJn=÷ès? ª!$# öNßgßJn=÷ètƒ 4 $tBur (#qà)ÏÿZè? `ÏB &äóÓx« †Îû È@‹Î6y™ «!$# ¤$uqムöNä3ö‹s9Î) óOçFRr&ur Ÿw šcqßJn=ôàè? ÇÏÉÈ

Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly”.

In the verse above we find the word which is underlined “to strike terror into and one of the nouns of that word is terrorist which in today’s fact has negative emotional meaning and part of world public opinion claimed that terrorist come from Moslem people. In fact, Islam doesn’t teach and even doesn’t tolerate the act of terror to others as well as to non Moslem people. Now we compare with the Indonesian translation taken from “Terjemah Al Qur’an DEPAG’

Dan siapkanlah untuk menghadapi mereka kekuatan apa saja yang kamu sanggupi dan dari kuda-kuda yang ditambat untuk berperang (yang dengan persiapan itu) kamu menggentarkan musuh Allah, musuhmu dan orang-orang selain mereka yang kamu tidak mengetahuinya; sedang Allah mengetahuinya. Apa saja yang kamu nafkahkan pada jalan Allah niscaya akan dibalas dengan cukup kepadamu dan kamu tidak akan dianiaya (dirugikan)”.

The word “menggentarkan” seems more acceptable in that translation. So, to avoid negative emotional meaning, we can change the word “to strike terror” by the proposed words such as: to threaten, to dismay, or to frighten. That words seem more neutral. And the words mentioned do not change the meaning of its translation.

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

Connotation refers to a subjective cultural and/or emotional coloration in addition to the explicit or denotative meaning of any specific word or phrase in a language and emotional association with a word. In this case, the dry legal expression “with no fixed address” quite deliberately avoids most of the positive or negative associations of the other two terms — a legal specialist will try to avoid connotative language altogether when writing legislation, often resorting to archaic Latin or French terms which are not a part of ordinary spoken English, and thus, relatively free of strong emotional associations. It is often useful to avoid words with strong connotations (especially disparaging ones) when striving to achieve a neutral point of view. A desire for more positive connotations, or fewer negative ones, is one of the main reasons for using euphemisms.

Bibliography

Ali, Y.A. Qur,an Viewer 2.72: The Translation of Qur,an (http://www.muslimNet.co.id)

Barwell, L.G. 1983. Introduction to Semantics and Translation. New York: Bentley House.

Jackson, H. 1988. Words and Their Meaning. New York: Longman Group UK.

Kempson, Ruth M. 1977. Semantic Theory. Translated by Abdul Wahab. 1995. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press.

Salomon, B.L. 1966. Semantics and Common Sense. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Wahab, A & Lestari, A.L. 1999. Menulis Karya Ilmiah. Surbaya: Airlangga University Press.


Tafsir Al Qur’an

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tûïÏ%©!$# tbqãZÏB÷sムÍ=ø‹tóø9$$Î/ tbqãK‹É)ãƒur no4qn=¢Á9$# $®ÿÊEur öNßg»uZø%y—u‘ tbqà)ÏÿZムÇÌÈ

Alhamdulillah kuayana rahmat katut inayah ti Mantena urang sadaya tiasa kempel ngariung di ieu tempat. Sarta ieu perkara the wajib ku urang disukurkeun sabab lamun seug teu aya rahmat ti Alloh manusa dina saat ieu moal aya anu disesakeun tina adzab Alloh lamun seug eta jalma migawe perkara anu dibendu ku Alloh SWT. Ku urang seueur kasaksian pirang-pirang jalma migawe perkara anu teu dipikarido ku Alloh bahkan pirang-pirang jalma migawe maksiat ka Alloh ngarasa genah jeung betah dina kama’siatan tapi ternyata eta jalma teh di alam dunya hirup senang, suka bungah rarasaanana kembae ma’siat ge da gening teu cilaka, teu disiksa ku Alloh memang kitu kaayaan jalma padahal eta the taya sanes kumargi Alloh masih keneh mere kanyaah ka eta jalma. Sakumaha dina hadits diuningakeun:

إن رحمتي سبقت غضبي:

Saur Alloh saestuna rahmat kami miheulaan kaambek kami, dina hadis sanes ku kalimat:

أن رحمتي تغلب غضبي:

Saestuna rahmat kami ngelehkeun kaambek kami. Lamun seug teu aya rahmat ti Alloh, can tangtu urang ayeuna tiasa barangtuang raos, awak sehat sareng kengeng mangpirang-pirang kani’matan ti Alloh.

Ikhwatu ieman rohimakumulloh.

Dina surat Al Baqoroh ti ngawitan ayat kadua dzalikal kitabu sareng saterasna….dugi ka ayat ka lima, janten 4 ayat eta berkaitan atanapi ngajelaskeun ngeunaan jalma anu mu’min. simkuring yakin tangtosna para hadirin apal kana eta ayat margi ari surat Al Baqoroh mah surat anu ka dua saatos surat Al Fatihah, margi biasana ari surat anu awalmah sok sering kaaos. Bahkan sakapeungmah surat anu awal jeung surat anu tungtung anu mineng kabaca the. Matak qur’an the anu reksak kertasna nepi ka galling sisina we hungkul. Surat al fatihah sareng surat al baqoroh. Sisi anu sejen surat-surat anu parondok an nas sareng al falak. Bahkan jilidna al qur’an nepika coplok tapi ari tengahna mah weuteuh we bahkan can pernah kabuka. Salajengna dua ayat ti ngawitan inalladzina kafaru sareng saterasna … 2 ayat nyaeta ayat ka 6 sareng ka 7 ngajelaskeun ngeunaan jalma-jalma anu kafir. Saterasna 13 ayat ti ngawitan ayat ka 8 ieu ngajelaskan anu aya kaitanana jeung jalma-jalma anu munafik. Janten 4 ayat ngenaan jalma mu’mun teras dua ayat ngenaan jalma kafir. Salajengna anu berkaitan sareng jalma-jalma anu munafikmah ku Alloh dijelaskan dugi ka 13 ayat. Jadi lamu dibandingkeun dina eta surat ayat anu ngajelaskeun jalma-jalma anu munafikmah langkung seueur. Ieu tangtosna kumargi ari jalma anu munafik mah loba tingkahlakuna anu sakapeung jalma nyangka yen manehna the jalma anu mu’min padahal jalma anu munafik hakiki eta the kaasup golongan jalma anu kafir.

Dina ayat nu kadua diungakeung dzalikal kitaabu laa roeba fiehi, ieu al Qur’an anu teu aya karaguan eusina. Hudan lil muttaqin jadi pituduh pikeun jalma-jalma anu taqwa. Numutkeun Ibnu Abbas ari Al muttaqin the nyaeta:

الذين يحذرون من الله عقوبته ويرجون رحمته في التصديق بما جاء به

Jalma-jalma anu rempan kana siksa ti Alloh jeung miharep rahmatna ku cara ngabenerkeun kana naon nu dicandak ku Rosul.

Salajengna saur Hasan al Bisri ari al muttaqien the:

اتقوا ما حرم الله عليهم وأدوا ما افترض عليهم

Jalma-jalma anu ngajauhan perkara anu diharamkeun ku Alloh, sarta ngalaksanakeun perkara anu diwajibkeun ka maranehna.

Saterasna saur Qotadah yen Al muttaqin the, alldzina yu’minuna bilgoebi wa yuqimuna sholata sarenga saterasna. Dina hadis riwayat Tirmidzi sareng Ibnu Majah:

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم [ لا يبلغ العبد أن يكون من المتقين حتى يدع مالا بأس به حذرا مما به بأس ]

Rosul kantos cumarios: Hiji hamba can nepi kana derajat taqwa nepi ka manehna ninggalkeun perkara anu henteu nanaon sabab rempan eta perkara eta perkara teh bakal jadi nanaon.

Ikhwatu Ieman rohimakumulloh!

Ayat anu salajengna:

{ الذين يؤمنون بالغيب ويقيمون الصلاة ومما رزقناهم ينفقون

Dina ieu ayat pami ku urang diwincik aya tilu anu kahiji yu’minuna bilgoibi, anu kadua yuqimuna sholata, sarta anu katilu wa mimma rojaknahum yunfiqun. Anu dimaksad iman kana gaib. Para ahli tafsir aya perbentenan dina nafsiran al goib, diantawisna anu dimaksad goib the nyaeta qodlo sareng qodar. Teras nu sanesnya nafsiran al goib the nyaeta sakumaha dina tafsir al Qurtuby dijelaskeun:

الغيب ما أخبر به الرسول عليه السلام مما لا تهتدي اليه العقول من أشرط الساعة وعذاب القبر والحشر والنشر والصراط والميزان والجنة والنار

Ari al goib the nyaeta naon anu diberitakeun ku Rosululloh tina perkara anu moal kajangkau ku akal dinatawisna, tanda-tanda kiamat, siksa kubur, dikumpulkeun jeung dibangkitkeunana manusa dina poe kiamat, jembatan as shirot, timbangan amal, surge jeung naraka.

Ikhwatu ieman rohimakumulloh!

Anu dimaksad yuqimuna sholata nyaeta

يديمون hartosna ngadawamkeun atanapi terus-terusan matgi di bahasa Arab kalimat

قام الشيء أي دام وثبت

Kumargi kitu yuqimuna sholat the nyaeta jalma an terus-terusan ngalaksanakeun sarta malihara shalat. Umar bin Khotob sasauran:

من حفظها وحافظ عليها حفظ دينه ومن ضيعها فهو لما سواها أضيع

“Sing saha jalma anu malihara jeung ngajaga sholat maka manehna geus ngajaga agamana sarta sing saha jalma anu nyepelekeun sholat maka manehna kana salian ti sholat bakal leuwih nyepelekeun.”

Kulantaran kitu lamun jalma geus hare-hare kana sholat, teu merhatikeun bahkan teu daek ngalaksanakeun sholat tangtu eta jalma baris hare-hare kana ibadah anu sejen. Jadi ibadahna hiji jalma bakal katinggal tina pelaksanaan sholatna. Lamun kana sholat merhatikeun tangtu baris merhatikeun kana amal ibadah salian ti sholat nyakitu sabalikna. Anu saterasna:

ومما رزقناهم ينفقون

Ibnu Abbas nafsiran wa mimma rojaknaahum yunfiqun nyaeta zakat harta. Qotadah masihan penjelasan ku kalimat:

فأنفقوا مما أعطاكم الله هذه الأموال يا ابن آدم يوشك أن تفارقها

“Prak infakeun ku aranjeun tina harta anu parantos dipasihkeun ku Alloh ka aranjeun hei manusa, sabab sakeudeung deui anjeun baris ninggalkeun eta harta.”

Rugi dimana jalma loba harta, sawah lega, duit loba lamun eta harta teu diinfakeun di jalan Alloh. Loba jalma pikeun ngumpulkeun dibelaan dibelaan digawe berang jeung peuting, awak ripuh sabab tanaga jeung pikiran dikaluarkeun pikeun neangan harta. Sabab sok sanajan loba harta angger we ari nu didaharmah saukuran jeung kamampuan jasmani. Moal aya sugan kulantaran loba dahareun. Rek barangdahar tehl leuwih tibatan nu sejen. Lamun jalma biasa dahar aspiring paling seueur dua piring. Da kulantaran loba dahareun rek sakali dahar the sugan nepika sapuluh piring. Moal tiasa angger we saukuran kamampuan jasmani. Bahkan sakapeungmah jalma anu loba harta jeung jalma anu miskin dina palebah dahar leuwih loba jalma miskin. Tukang macul mah dahar tiasa seep nepi ka dua piring mungkin leuwih tapi anu beunghar mah can tangtu. Sare sakapeungmah leuwih tibra jalma anu miskin dibandingkeun jeung jalma anu beunghar teu tengtrem sare sabab loba kahariwang sabab hartana sieun aya nu maling. Dina palebah boga hutang leuwih gede hutangna jalma beunghar. Da ari jalma miskinmah dimana nganjuk ngahutang the paling keur meuli beas. Moal aya sugan jalma miskin rek nginjem duit atanawa nyicil keur meuli mobil BMW anu cicilan sasasihna tiasa 3 dugi ka 5 juta. Jadi sakali deui rugi dimana urang teu ngaluarkeun infak tina harta anu ku urang ka pimilik. Sabab infak eta anu baris nyalametkeun diri urang tina adzab Alloh.

Ikhwatu ieman rohimakumulloh!

Aya sababaraha hal anu jadi syarat supaya infak urang ditampi ku Alloh swt diantawisna nu kahiji urang diparentah sangkan infak ku barang anu hade, sahingga perkara anu katarima ku hiji jalma mangrupakeun perkara anu hade anu aya manfaatna. Sahingga dina surat Ali Imran diuningakeun urang bakal bias ngahontal kahadean dina tingkatan al birru dimana urang sanggup ngainfakeun harta atanapi perkara anu dipikacinta ku urang. Eta ayat unggelna:

`s9 (#qä9$oYs? §ŽÉ9ø9$# 4Ó®Lym (#qà)ÏÿZè? $£JÏB šcq™6ÏtéB 4 $tBur (#qà)ÏÿZè? `ÏB &äóÓx« ¨bÎ*sù ©!$# ¾ÏmÎ/ ÒOŠÎ=tæ ÇÒËÈ

Aranjeung moal bias ngahontal kana kahadean sahingga aranjeun ngainfakeun harta anu dipikacinta ku aranjeun, jeung perkara naon wae anu ku anjeung diinfakeun maka saestuna Alloh uninga (Ali Imran:92)

Ayat anu sanesna anu marentahkeun sangkan urang infak ku perkara anu hade nyaeta:

$yg•ƒr¯»tƒ tûïÏ%©!$# (#þqãZtB#uä (#qà)ÏÿRr& `ÏB ÏM»t6ÍhŠsÛ $tB óOçFö;|¡Ÿ2 !$£JÏBur $oYô_t÷zr& Nä3s9 z`ÏiB ÇÚö‘F{$# ( Ÿwur (#qßJ£Ju‹s? y]ŠÎ7y‚ø9$# çm÷ZÏB tbqà)ÏÿYè? NçGó¡s9ur ÏmƒÉ‹Ï{$t«Î/ HwÎ) br& (#qàÒÏJøóè? Ïm‹Ïù 4 (#þqßJn=ôã$#ur ¨br& ©!$# ;ÓÍ_xî ÏJym ÇËÏÐÈ

Hei jalma-jalma nu airman prak infakeun tinu harade tina hasil usaha aranjeun jeung tina sabagian anu dikaluarkeun tina bumi, jeung aranjeun ulah milih anu garoreng nu ku anjeung diinfakeun sarta anjeun ge teu daek nyokotna anging bari micingkeun panon, jeung kanyahokeun saestuna Alloh maha beunghar tur maha pinuji (Al Baqarah:267)

Ayat eta jelas pisan yen urang diparentah infak nu barang anu hade, sarta sabalikna urang dilarang infak ku nu garoreng anu urang sorang embung nyokotna. Ulah nepika aya daek mere ka batur barang berena the ku perkara anu teu layak atawa goreng. Rajuen daek mere baju, bajuna the anu goreng atawa soek teu layak pakai. Daripada diteundeun dina lomari heurin geus we bikeun bari jeung bajuna the baju anu barutut anu urang ge geus teu butuh sarta anu narimana ge can tangtu daekun make. Da ari baju anu sae mah sok sanajan lobage lebar rek dibikeun teh bari jeung ku manehna teu dipake. Atawa gaduh tuangan rajeun dibikeun anu geus haseum anu geus buruk da pikirna daripada teu didahar mening dibikeun. Barijeung lamun teamah dina didahar ku nu narimana kalah jadi panyakit da geus teu layak. Tah ulah dugi kakitu.

Anu kadua urang teu kengen barangbere bari nganyenyeri jalma anu diberena. Dina al qur’an surat Al Baqoroh ayat 264 diuningakeun:

$yg•ƒr¯»tƒ tûïÏ%©!$# (#qãZtB#uä Ÿw (#qè=ÏÜö7è? Nä3ÏG»s%y‰|¹ Çd`yJø9$$Î/ 3“sŒF{$#ur “É‹©9$%x. ß,ÏÿYム¼ã&s!$tB uä!$sÍ‘ Ĩ$¨Z9$# Ÿwur ß`ÏB÷sム«!$$Î/ ÏQöqu‹ø9$#ur ̍ÅzFy$# ( ¼ã&é#sVyJsù È@sVyJx. Ab#uqøÿ|¹ Ïmø‹n=tã Ò>#tè? ¼çmt/$|¹rsù ×@Î/#ur ¼çmŸ2uŽtIsù #V$ù#|¹ ( žw šcrâ‘ωø)tƒ 4’n?tã &äóÓx« $£JÏiB (#qç7|¡Ÿ2 3 ª!$#ur Ÿw “ωôgtƒ tPöqs)ø9$# tûï͍Ïÿ»s3ø9$# ÇËÏÍÈ

264. Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu menghilangkan (pahala) sedekahmu dengan menyebut-nyebutnya dan menyakiti (perasaan si penerima), seperti orang yang menafkahkan hartanya Karena riya kepada manusia dan dia tidak beriman kepada Allah dan hari kemudian. Maka perumpamaan orang itu seperti batu licin yang di atasnya ada tanah, Kemudian batu itu ditimpa hujan lebat, lalu menjadilah dia bersih (Tidak bertanah). mereka tidak menguasai sesuatupun dari apa yang mereka usahakan; dan Allah tidak memberi petunjuk kepada orang-orang yang kafir

Anu salajeungna urang teu kengeng barangbere sangkan anu dibere ku urang the mere deui anu leuwih loba. Contona sugan we dibere ku urang manehna ge bakal mere ka urang. Atawa ah reka mere the dua puluh rebu sugan we manehna mere deui leuwih loba ti batan eta. Hartina jalma a nu sarupa kitu teu ikhlas dina barangberena sabab anu diharepkeuna kauntungan tina pamerena. Dina al Qur’an surat al mudasir ayat 6 di uningakeun:

Ÿwur `ãYôJs? çŽÏYõ3tGó¡n@ ÇÏÈ Dan janganlah kamu memberi (dengan maksud) memperoleh (balasan) yang lebih banyak.

Ikhwatu Iman rohimakumulloh!

Dina Kitab sohih Muslim. Imam Muslim nyimpen hiji bab kalawan ngangge judul:

بَاب الْحَثِّ عَلَى الصَّدَقَةِ وَلَوْ بِشِقِّ تَمْرَةٍ أَوْ كَلِمَةٍ طَيِّبَةٍ وَأَنَّهَا حِجَابٌ مِنْ النَّارِ

“Bab dorongan pikeun ngalaksanakeun sodakoh sok sanajan ku sasiki korma atawa ku ucapan anu hade, sarta sastuna eta the bakal jadi panghalang tina seuneu naraka”

Ari ngalaksanakeun infak the prilakuna jalma anu mu’min. rosul senantiasa ngadorong para sahabat sangkan ngaluarkeun harta. Sarta ternyata jalma anu marunafekmah ngahina ka jalma-jalma mu’min anu ngaluarkeun harta di jalan Alloh. Ieu terjadi di jaman Rosul tatkala aya saurang sahabat namina Abu Ukail manehna the jalma anu teu boga tapi kulantaran nilai kaimanan jeung kataatannana manehna maksakeun sodaqoh ku satengah sho korma anu dikalangan urang arabmah satengah sho korma mangrupa perkara anu saeutik secara kwantitas. Tapi keur abu Ukail kulantaran jalma miskin sakitu the maksakeun dina sodaqoh kalawan dasar iman Ka Alloh. Harita tatkala urang munafik ninggali sodakohna Abu Ukail maranehna nyeungseurikeun bari ngahina. Ceuk maranehna Alloh mah teu butuheun piraku sodakoh ngan saeutik. Tapi tatkala aya diantara para sahabat sodakoh ku jumlah anu loba. Jalma anu marunafek angger ngahina ceuk maranehna: sodakoh loba the eta mah haying kapuji, hayang d sebut jalma taqwa. Sahingga dina eta kajadian lungsur ayat:

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79. (orang-orang munafik itu) yaitu orang-orang yang mencela orang-orang mukmin yang memberi sedekah dengan sukarela dan (mencela) orang-orang yang tidak memperoleh (untuk disedekahkan) selain sekedar kesanggupannya, Maka orang-orang munafik itu menghina mereka. Allah akan membalas penghinaan mereka itu, dan untuk mereka azab yang pedih. (At Taubah:79)

Eta kajadian kaunggel dina hadits riwayat Imam Musilim lengkepna:

عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ أُمِرْنَا بِالصَّدَقَةِ قَالَ كُنَّا نُحَامِلُ قَالَ فَتَصَدَّقَ أَبُو عَقِيلٍ بِنِصْفِ صَاعٍ قَالَ وَجَاءَ إِنْسَانٌ بِشَيْءٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُ فَقَالَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ عَنْ صَدَقَةِ هَذَا وَمَا فَعَلَ هَذَا الْآخَرُ إِلَّا رِيَاءً فَنَزَلَتْ الَّذِينَ يَلْمِزُونَ الْمُطَّوِّعِينَ مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ إِلَّا جُهْدَهُمْ

“Katampi ti Ibnu Mas’ud anjeuna sasauran: Abdi sadaya diparentah pikeun ngaluarkeun sodaqoh, diantara abdi aya anu manggul (korma disodaqohkeun), maka abu Ukail sodaqoh satengah sho (korma) jeung aya jalma-jalma anu sodaqohna leuwih loba. Nyarita jalma anu marunafek Alloh teu butuheun kana eta sodaqoh (Sodaqohna Abu Ukail) jeung ari sodaqohna anu sejen (anu sodaqohna loba) taya lian kulantaran riya(haying kapuji). Maka turun ayat ………. (At Taubah:79) (HR Muslim)

Jadi keur jalma anu munafek mah aya jalma mu’min sodaqoh saeutik dihina piraku sodakoh ngan sakitu, piraku infak ngan sarebu perak Alloh mah teu butuheun infak sakitu mah bari jeung manehna mah sarebu ge henteu. Lamun aya jalma infakna gede pokna the si eta mah haying kapuji infak gede, haying disebut jalma berehan jeng sajabana. Jadi bakal serba salah lamun kuurang dibandungan aya jalma rajin ka masjid diomongakeun haying disebut jalma taqa si eta mah ka masjid the meni rajin-rajin teuing, tara ka masjid angger diomongkeun.

Khilafah menurut makna bahasa merupakan mashdar dari fi’il madhi khalafa, berarti: menggantikan atau menempati tempatnya (Munawwir, 1984:390). Makna khilafah menurut Ibrahim Anis (1972) adalah orang yang datang setelah orang lain lalu menggantikan tempatnya (jâ’a ba’dahu fa-shâra makânahu) (Al-Mu’jam al-Wasith, I/251).
Dalam kitab Mu’jam Maqayis al-Lughah (II/210) dinyatakan, khilafah dikaitkan dengan penggantian karena orang yang kedua datang setelah orang yang pertama dan menggantikan kedudukannya. Menurut Imam ath-Thabari, makna bahasa inilah yang menjadi alasan mengapa as-sulthan al-a’zham (penguasa besar umat Islam) disebut sebagai khalifah, karena dia menggantikan penguasa sebelumnya, lalu menggantikan posisinya (Tafsir Ath-Thabari,I/199).
Imam al-Qalqasyandi mengatakan, menurut tradisi umum istilah khilafah kemudian digunakan untuk menyebut kepemimpinan agung (az-za’amah al-uzhma), yaitu kekuasaan umum atas seluruh umat, pelaksanaan urusan-urusan umat, dan pemikulan tugas-tugas mereka (Al-Qalqasyandi, Ma’atsir al-Inafah fi Ma’alim al-Khilafah, I/8-9). Dalam berbagai literatur studi politik Islam (fiqh siyasah), konsep itu sering dipakai secara bergantian dengan kata imamah dan imarah yang memiliki makna senada.Dari sisi etimologis maupun terminologis, ketiga konsep tersebut muncul dalam sejarah Islam untuk merujuk kepada institusi politik yang menggantikan fungsi kenabian dalam urusan agama dan politik (Suyuthi Pulungan, 1994: 95).Secara khusus, ide khilafah sangat berkait dengan cita-cita eksisnya kembali pemerintahan Islam global (Khilafah Islamiyah) sebagaimana selalu didengungkan misalnya oleh Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI).Dalam praktiknya, pemerintahan Islam sendiri dalam sejarah hanya bertahan 1342 tahun. Yang sering disebut pemerintahan Islam terakhir, Abdul Majid II di kekhalifahan Turki Utsmani pada 3 Maret 1924 (28 Rajab 1342 H) akhirnya turun tahta

Dalam pengertian syariah, Khilafah digunakan untuk menyebut orang yang menggantikan Nabi Saw dalam kepemimpinan Negara Islam (ad-dawlah al-Islamiyah) (Al-Baghdadi, 1995:20). Inilah pengertiannya pada masa awal Islam. Kemudian, dalam perkembangan selanjutnya, istilah Khilafah digunakan untuk menyebut Negara Islamitusendiri(Al-Khalidi,1980:226).
Pemahaman ini telah menjadi dasar pembahasan seluruh ulama fiqih siyasah ketika mereka berbicara tentang “Khilafah” atau “Imamah”. Dengan demikian, walaupun secara literal tak ada satu pun ayat al-Qur’an yang menyebut kata “ad-dawlah al-Islamiyah” (negara Islam), Para ulama terdahulu telah membahas konsep negara Islam atau sistem pemerintahan Islam dengan istilah lain yang lebih spesifik, yaitu istilah Khilafah/Imamah atau istilah Darul Islam (lihat Dr. Sulaiman ath-Thamawi, As-Sulthat ats-Tsalats, hal. 245; Dr. Wahbah az-Zuhaili, Al-Fiqhal-IslamiwaAdillatuhu,IX/823).
Timbul pertanyaan apakah mendirikan daulah Islam atau khilafah merupakan suatu kewajiban sebagaimana intens diserukan oleh Hizbu Tahrir? Dan konsep khilafah seperti apakah yang akan dibangun? Mengingat perlunya suatu kajian yang lebih mendalam dan komprehensif mengenai masalah ini.

Syaikhul-Islam Sheikh Ibnu Taimiyah  menegaskan secara jelas dalam bukunya As Siyasah As Syari’ah pada halaman 161-162 dan bukunya Majmu’ul Fatwa vol.28 hal 390-393, bahwa : “kita semua harus sadar bahwa pelaksanaan segala urusan ummat merupakan salah satu kewajiban Ad Dien dan pelaksanaannya tidak akan terjadi kecuali oleh Imaroh (kepemimpinan), karena kepentingan anak-anak Adam tidak akan terselesaikan kecuali apabila mereka bergabung dan menyatukan kepentingan mereka, dan tidak akan terjadi penyatuan tersebut kecuali jika ada seorang pemimpin. Inilah mengapa Allah saw mewajibkan menyeru kepada kebaikan dan meninggalkan keburukan dan hal ini tidak akan sampai pada masyarakat kecuali dengan adanya seorang penguasa dan Imaroh (pemimpin) yang menjalankannya dan semua kewajiban yang lain seperti jihad, haji, sholat ‘Id atau menegakkan hudud atau pelaksanaan peradilan tidak terlaksana kecuali oleh seorang penguasa atau Imaroh.Kitab hadits utama seperti Shahih Bukhari, misalnya, memberi porsi khusus tentang hadits-hadits ke-Khilafahan dan kepemimpinan dalam bab tersendiri yang diberi judul Kitab al-Ahkam, sedangkan Shahih Muslim memberinya ruang khusus dalam bab Kitab al-Imarah.

Berbicara soal pelaksanaan atau penegakkan syari’at Islam dimana saja dan kapan saja, kita harus berbicara lebih dulu soal wala (waliyul amri), yang sering disebut dengan nama Khalifah atau Imamah atau Imarah atau yang semakna dengannya.

Benar apa yang dikatakan oleh Umar Ibnul Khattab, ra :

“ Islam tidak akan tegak tanpa jama’ah dan jama’ah tidak akan tegak tanapa Imamah dan Imamah tidak akan tegak tanpa ta’at”

Saya kutip ucapan Umar bin Khattab di atas bukan hanya karena ucapan Khalifah Rasyidin yang juga harus dipedomani sesudah hadist Rasul, tetapi saya melihat ucapannya itu sebagai hasil pemikiran, atau hasil istinbath dari ayat-ayat dan hadist-hadist tentang wala.

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